Analysis of the Development of the Northern Region, Southern Region, and Western Region of United States from Colonization to the Civil War

Analysis of the Development of the Northern Region, Southern Region, and Western Region of United States from Colonization to the Civil War

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The United States population was largely built on the numbers emigrating from Europe. England, in particular, was responsible for a large section of the migrant population. Promoters, the government and living conditions, motivated the prevalence of English migration (Atack & Passell, 1994). Promoters worked to increase the number of residents in their colonies. The promoters were mainly private investors granted land by the Crown in return for mainly symbolic payments. The government gave incentives such as land to private investors to increase their presence in the colony to restrain the influence of foreign nations such as Netherlands and Spain from the new colony of America (Woods, 2002). Living conditions motivated the masses from England to move to America in search of better opportunities. The English government encouraged by the prevailing mercantilism took control and began to regulate activities of the new colony. The crown imposed taxes on trade and regulated industry in a bid to tap into the increasing wealth arising from the development of industries and trade in the new colony of America. This paper will examine the development of the northern region, southern region, and western region of United States from colonization to the Civil War.

The Northern region of America was too cold for the staple crops that were common in England but supportive of traditional farming methods that the settlers had brought with them (Turner & Bogue, 2010). As opposed to the north, the south flourished in trade and plantation farming. Slave labor was allowed in the Southern region except in Georgia, which was founded under ideas that did not permit slavery (Turner & Bogue, 2010). Similarly, the Western region was catching up as a trade hub. Towns began to emerge due to increased merchant services. The western region benefitted the settlers by its fertile soils and plenty of natural resources that could be exploited especially after the settlers had exhausted resources to the north and east of America.

Virginia’s development and growth is attributed to the uptake of plantation farming. When the initial settlers landed in the region, they were caught up in the search for gold and other valuable minerals they barely grew any food crops. Subsequently, the risk of famine was continually present. However, when the settlers learned how to plant tobacco, the economic rise of the colony started (Turner & Bogue, 2010). Maryland’s growth is similar to Virginia’s in the sense that both regions developed on the backbone of agriculture, which was spurred by supportive conditions in the state.

The northern region was established based mainly on ideals of tolerance. Maryland in particular founded under the guidance of Lord Baltimore was famous for its policy of toleration for all religions (Morris, 2013). However, the south and west were mainly based on ideas of freedom or liberty as opposed to religiously inspired ideals. Maryland, unlike Virginia, was built on the premise of being a haven to those in search of a place that did not harbor bias by religion. The colony of Virginia in contrast had little or no regard for religious values, choosing to take advantage of the liberty afforded to develop economically. Similarly, Carolina (both north and south despite their differences) shared little regard for religious ideals aiming for economic development. However, William Penn created a tolerant state similar to Maryland but with a focus on fertile soils that were ideal for a new life of the economic development.

Transport was a huge challenge to all regions of America. Roads were not yet built, and hostilities between natives and settlers were a major hindrance to development. The Appalachian mountains were a major hindrance to the exploration of the interior regions of the colony for a long time (Morris, 2013). Traveling into the interior regions carried a lot of risks. The risks involved nature and people. The climatic conditions posed a challenge to pioneers. Many fell ill with the weather, and some died of heat stroke or excessively cold winters. The Native Americans in many parts greeted the settlers with hostility. The constant ambushes by both factions led to a slowdown in development of many regions. The skirmishes led to the loss of lives of many Native Americans and settlers alike.

The southern region experienced a lot of development at the end of the 17th century and during the 18th century (Morris, 2013). The settlers in Carolina were closely tied to the plantation farmers in Barbados in the Caribbean. Carolina split into North and South 1729 (Wood, 2002). In the North, farmers struggled to make a living from the tough conditions. In the south, farmers prospered growing corn, harvesting lumber, rearing beef and pork. The farmers began growing rice in the 1690s(Morris, 2013). The south was heavily reliant on slave labor in contrast to their neighbors in the north and west. Philanthropist Englishman James Oglethorpe later established Georgia (Morris, 2013). The south was unlike the north and west because at some point it experienced division due to ideological differences.

Settlers spurred development in the northern region, western region, and southern region of America. The settlers took advantage of the available resources and increased the productivity of the regions they inhabited. Maryland, Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York depended on agriculture but trade was prosperous in these regions. Carolina was alike to Virginia with a lot of plantation farming. The entrepreneurial spirit of the settlers made the development of the regions of the United States possible.


Atack, J., & Passell, P. (1994). New Economic View of American History: From Colonial Times

to 1940. WW Norton.

Morris, A. E. J. (2013). History of urban form before the industrial revolution. Routledge.

Turner, F. J., & Bogue, A. G. (2010). The frontier in American history. Courier Corporation.

Wood, G. S. (2002). The American Revolution: A History (Vol. 9). Modern library.